One of the reasons I went exploring into Rails was because of Capistrano, a utility that greatly helps deploying Rails sites into production servers, by automating many of the tedious setup steps needed to deploy new changes into production. I know I can't be the only one who has once or twice pushed some new change into production, only to discover (by myself or an angry user) that I forgot to bring the database schema up-to-date as well. Capistrano (actually, migrations are the key component here) will never allow that to happen again.

In a nutshell, Capistrano does the following:

  • Logs into your server via SSH
  • It creates a directory structure that's useful in case you want to rollback some bad code you mistakenly pushed unto the server
  • Uses Subversion (or other SCM) to checkout the latest code committed into the repository and downloads it
  • Automatically runs all migrations to make sure the database is up-to-date
  • Runs other scripts, like making sure your FastCGI processes are restarted and running correctly, or restarting your web server

After nearly finishing my first public Rails site (coming soon, I promise!), I wanted to learn how to use this tool by deploying the first version into my VPN space using Capistrano. I thought this would be a daunting task, and at the beginning it was thanks to some minor errors, but after that, it was total bliss. After a few hours of tweaking my settings, I finally got it to work, and all deployments from here on out should be as simple as writing cap deploy without and remorse.

I'm going to write how I set up my deployment environment, so if anyone has had similar problems to mine, they can hopefully get past them.

First off, let me write about my app and server environment:

  • Operating System: CentOS 4.5
  • Webserver: Lighttpd 1.4.15
  • Rails Version: 1.2.3
  • Mongrel: 1.0.1
  • Capistrano: 2.0.0

After installing Capistrano on my development computer (simply using gem install capistrano --include-dependencies), I was ready to "capify" my application. To create the files used for deployment, just issue capify . at the root directory of the Rails application. This creates two files: Capify, which points to the second file, config/deploy.rb, which is the actual deployment configuration file.

The configuration is pretty straight-forward. There are some default settings that can e easily changed to reflect your production server setup. I did just that, and that's where the 'gotchas' started pouring in.

After I changed the default values to my own, I wanted to set up the directory structure in my production server. To do that, simply run cap deploy:setup in the root directory of your application. That should prompt you for your SSH password to create all the directories needed in the directory specified in the deployment file (using the :deploy_to variable). However, when I did that, I got a nice error message: no such file to load -- openssl.

After searching a few minutes in Google, I found my problem: I had compiled Ruby from source without the openssl-devel libraries installed in my system. Without the header files, Ruby compiled without OpenSSL support. So after installing the OpenSSL header files and recompiling Ruby (don't forget to run make clean before recompiling), I was faced with another error message: It stated that my server didn't exist. Then I remembered I'm running SSH in a non-standard port. Capistrano assumes it's running on the default port, which is 22. After a few more minutes of searching, I found an option that needed to be added to the deployment file: ssh_options[:port] = xx, where xx is your SSH port number. After these changes, I was golden, as Capistrano asked for my SSH password.

After entering it in and seeing some progress in the directory creation process, I was faced with yet another error message, about a user not existing. I was assuming Capistrano was using the user name from my development box to log into the production server. In any case, this was fixed by adding another option in the deployment file: set :user, "production_user", where production_user is the user name with the appropriate permissions to create the directories and files in the production server. I ran cap deploy:setup once more, and all my directories were created. Success! Little did I know that would be only the first steps, and more troubles were looming ahead.

Once I verified the directory structure was created correctly on my production server, I went ahead and ran cap deploy:cold, which deploys my latest working version to the server, runs all migrations, updates all symlinks to the current code, and runs all remaining processes, like respawning all FastCGI processes, for the very first time. I once again ran into a small snag, as I was having permission problems running some scripts on the production server. After some more minutes of searching, I found that there's a variable that needs to be set to make sure Capistrano runs the scripts as a specific user with adequate permissions. After adding set :runner, "production_user" (once again, where production_user is the user with the correct permissions to run your application scripts) to my deployment file, I was able to pass the permission parts, but then I hit yet another snag: I was missing a file - script/spin.

I found it odd that Capistrano was looking for this file, as it's not automatically generated either by Rails or Capistrano. But after calmly reading the Capistrano installation instructions (instead of skimming over most of it), I saw that this file is used to recreate (or create) the FastCGI processes in your production server, to ensure that the users will get served the latest version of your app. There are many different ways to set up your FastCGI processes, depending on what the web server you'll use. Since I use Lighttpd, I'll be writing about that here. But you can find tons of useful information on the Internet if you use Apache, nginx or any other web server.

To remedy this problem, all I needed to do was to create the script/spin file (with executable permissions - chmod 0755 script/spin) with the following line (where /root_of_app/ is the path you described in the set :deploy_to: variable in the deployment file):

/root_of_app/current/script/process/spawner -a -i 3 -r 5

This script calls another script called spawner (included in current versions of Rails), which verifies if there are FastCGI processes currently running. If the processes exist, they're recreated to show the new version of the app. If the processes don't exist, they're created. The -a switch indicates the IP address used to direct the FastCGI processes. If you don't use this switch, it will default to, which was causing me problems later on. The -i switch tells the script to create three FastCGI processes in sequential ports. Finally, the -r switch tells the script to verify if these scripts are still active every five seconds. This makes sure that all processes are running smoothly. One switch I didn't use was the -p switch. By default, the spawner script creates all FastCGI processes starting with port 8000. Using the -p switch, you can specify which is the first port. In my case, the three FastCGI processes are creates using ports 8000, 8001 and 8002. You can change that default if you wish.

After you create the spin script, you'll need to commit it to your SCM so Capistrano can find it in the production server. Once committed, I re-ran the cap deploy:cold command, and I was greeted with success at the end. My latest version of the application code was sent to the server, all migrations ran, and the spin script created three FastCGI processes on my server. Awesome! My work here with Capistrano was done. After hating Capistrano for a good while, I fixed all the kinks and can now never live without it. I love you, Capistrano.

Feeling good for myself, I immediately fired up my browser and entered my site's URL. Too bad only 500 - Internal Server Error appeared when I went to the site. Curious, I entered the URL once again, appending :8000 at the end of the URL, and lo-and-behold, the site appeared in all its glory. So the FastCGI processes created with Mongrel were working well. But my web server wasn't transferring the requests to one of the three processes.

After looking around for more information, I saw how FastCGI processes, Mongrel and Lighttpd work together. In a nutshell, the request for the site is sent to Lighttpd, the web server. Lighty then needs to process this request and send it over to one of the FastCGI processes, which then displays the site on the user's screen. Lighttpd is simply used in this case as a proxy, and lucky for me, it already has some basic proxy functionality built-in. However, it needs to send the the request somewhere. I saw some tutorials online that set this up, but it seemed to always send the request to only one of the three processes, which wasn't efficient at all.

Here is where Pound comes into play. Pound is reverse-proxy and load balancer for web servers. Basically, it takes all requests from the web servers and passes it along to the processes running the site, making sure that all processes aren't over-worked by load-balancing all requests. After installing Pound on my production server, I had to create a configuration file, by default stored in /usr/local/etc/pound.cfg (your location may vary, depending if you compiled and installed the program from source, or just installed a package):

ListenHTTP Address Port 7999 Service HeadRequire "Host: .**" BackEnd Address Port 8000 End BackEnd Address Port 8001 End BackEnd Address Port 8002 End End End

This configuration will make Pound listen to the requests on port 7999 in the local machine (my production server), and forward the site's requests to one of the three FastCGI processes created by the spawner script I talked about previously. I was surprised at how something so powerful could be easily implemented.

Now all I needed to do was to configure my web server to direct all site requests to Pound, which in turn passed them along to one of the three FastCGI processes. Skipping all the other default settings and changing all sensitive info that may compromise my site, here are my current Lighttpd settings for the site in question:

$HTTP["host"] =~ "(^|.)$" { server.document-root = "/home/production_user/railsapps/app_name/current/public" server.error-handler-404 = "/dispatch.fcgi" server.errorlog = "/var/log/lighttpd/site.error" accesslog.filename = "/var/log/lighttpd/site.access" proxy.server = ( "" => ( "site" => ( "host" => "" , "port" => 7999, "check-local" => "disable" ))) )

Make sure you load the mod_proxy server module so you can use the proxy.server option mentioned above.

Once I restarted Lighttpd, I entered my site's URL, crossed my fingers, and... success! I finally had a working site, load-balanced and all. What set out to be a learning process in Capistrano in turn made me use load balancing techniques in my site, which was something I planned on doing, but on another day, thinking it was super-complicated.

From here on out, every time I make a change I want to push to my site, all I need to do is run cap deploy on my development box, and that's it. Everything will be updated with a simple command. It's truly worth the time I spent getting it to work. Now I will never have an angry user again because I forgot to update the database schema.

In all, I spent a few hours fixing all the small kinks I encountered along the way. But as all good things go, you need to bust your ass to get things working like you want to. I don't mind at all, as I learned a whole lot in one day. I hope someone finds some solutions in this writeup.

In case you're curious, here's my deployment file, with all the sensitive info changed for obvious reasons:

# Application Name - Anything you want to describe your application set :application, "app_name" # The URL of your source code repository, pointing to the latest version set :repository, "http://svn_repo/trunk" # Set the user name to connect to the server via SSH set :user, "production_user" # Set the user name of the user with permissions to run the application scripts set :runner, "production_user" # Set the path where you want your application to be stored set :deploy_to, "/home/production_user/railsapps/#{application}" # Option to change the SSH port ssh_options[:port] = xx # The URL or IP Address where your application will be stored - Multiple sites can be specified role :app, "xx.xx.xx.xx" # The URL or IP Address where your application will be served - Multiple sites can be specified role :web, "xx.xx.xx.xx" # The URL or IP Address where your database lives - Multiple sites can be specified role :db, "xx.xx.xx.xx", :primary => true # Task to restart the web server task :restart_web_server, :roles => :web do sudo "/etc/init.d/lighttpd restart" end # Restart the web server once the deployment is finished after "deploy:start", :restart_web_server